Vaccine Info

Are they safe? Do they really work? Information for you to decide the answer to those questions for yourself.

SSPE-Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis   MMR    Measles    Mumps    Rubella     

       Measles Mumps Rubella Varicella     Hepatits A     Hepatitis B   Hepatitis A & B

       Hepatitis E    Varicella    Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy     Influenza      DTaP

        DTP    DT   Diphtheria  Tetanus   Pertussis   Haemophilus Influenzae B      Smallpox

Pneumococcal   Japanese B Encephalitis   Polio    Vitamin K    Streptococcal

Anthrax    Rotavirus     BCG    Meningococcal    HIV/AIDS    Yellow Fever    Typhoid

Contraceptive/STD vaccines     Vaccine Safety     Vaccine Effectiveness    General Information




SSPE-Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine induced subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

Fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: clinical and neuropathological observations

Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in Perspective CPSP resource article published September 2000

The epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in England and Wales 1990-2002

Cutaneous adverse reactions following anti-infective vaccinations

Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae severe pneumonia in an infant: Case report.



Prevalence of Anti-Gelatin IgE Antibodies in People With Anaphylaxis After Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine in the United States

MMR vaccine side-effects 'not fully tested'

An evaluation of the adverse reaction potential of three measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccines.

Acute pancreatitis associated with MMR vaccination

Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children.

Infection of human B lymphocytes with MMR vaccine induces IgE class switching.

A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Association of Varicella Vaccine Failure With Asthma, Steroid Use, Age at Vaccination, and Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination.

Abnormal Measles-Mumps-Rubella Antibodies and CNS Autoimmunity in Children with Autism.

Does the MMR vaccine and secretin or its receptor share an antigenic epitope?

Placing the risk of seizures with pediatric vaccines in a clinical context.

Duration of immunity and occurrence of secondary vaccine failure following vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella.

Outbreak of aseptic meningitis and mumps after mass vaccination with MMR vaccine using the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps strain.

Immunogenicity and Safety of a Varicella Vaccine (OKAVAX™) and a Trivalent Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine (TRIMOVAX™) Administered Concomitantly in Healthy Filipino Children 12-24 Months Old.

MMR mass vaccination campaigns, vaccine-related adverse events, and the limits of the decision making process, in Brazil.

The first rapid onset optic neuritis after measles–rubella vaccination: case report

Effect of choice of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine on immediate vaccination pain in infants

Atopic dermatitis is increased following vaccination for measles, mumps and rubella or measles infection

MMR Vaccination and Febrile Seizures: Evaluation of Susceptible Subgroups and Long-term Prognosis

Informing education policy on MMR: balancing individual freedoms and collective responsibilities for the promotion of public health

Evaluation of immunogenicity and side effects of triple viral vaccine (MMR) in adults, given by two routes: subcutaneous and respiratory (aerosol)

Parents' reported reasons for avoiding MMR vaccination. A telephone survey.

Infection of Human B Lymphocytes with MMR Vaccine Induces IgE Class Switching-FULL STUDY



Acute Encephalopathy Followed by Permanent Brain Injury or Death Associated With Further Attenuated Measles Vaccines: A Review of Claims Submitted to the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

Atypical measles syndrome: unusual hepatic, pulmonary, and immunologic aspects.

Acute infectious erythemas in children: a clinico-microbiological study.

Do infections reduce the development of allergy? Do measles reduce the risk of allergic disease?

An evaluation of measles serodiagnosis during an outbreak in a vaccinated community.

Major measles epidemic in the region of Quebec despite a 99% vaccine coverage.

Clinical and epidemiological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with a high vaccination coverage.

Explosive school-based measles outbreak: intense exposure may have resulted in high risk, even among revaccinees.

Detection of measles vaccine in the throat of a vaccinated child.

Measles inclusion-body encephalitis caused by the vaccine strain of measles virus.

Measles vaccination for children with allergic diseases.

Measles virus:immunomodulation and cell tropism as pathogenicity determinants.

Potential viral pathogenic mechanism for new variant inflammatory bowel disease.

The effect of live measles vaccines on serum vitamin A levels in healthy children.

Recombinant measles AIK-C strain expressing current wild-type hemagglutinin protein

Associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and very high levels of measles antibody following vaccination.

Induction of Cellular and Humoral Immunity after Aerosol or Subcutaneous Administration of Edmonston-Zagreb Measles Vaccine as a Primary Dose to 12-Month-Old Children.

Associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and very high levels of measles antibody following vaccination

Estimation of the number of infectious measles viruses in live virus vaccines using quantitative real-time PCR.

A target site for template-based design of measles virus entry inhibitors.

Associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and very high levels of measles antibody following vaccination

Measles: immune suppression and immune responses

Limited contribution of humoral immunity to the clearance of measles viremia in rhesus monkeys

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with probable measles vaccine failure

Live Measles Vaccine Expressing the Secreted Form of the West Nile Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Protects against West Nile Virus Encephalitis

Genetic characterization of wild type measles virus isolated in Croatia during the 2003-2004 outbreak

Measles virus infection and vaccination: potential role in chronic illness and associated adverse events

Acute Encephalopathy Followed by Permanent Brain Injury or Death Associated With Further Attenuated Measles Vaccines: A Review of Claims Submitted to the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

HLA class II alleles and measles virus-specific cytokine immune response following two doses of measles vaccine

A novel intranasal Protollin(trade mark)-based measles vaccine induces mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity in mice

Probing neutralizing-antibody responses against emerging measles viruses (MVs): immune selection of MV by H protein-specific antibodies?

The development of a plant-based vaccine for measles

Vaccine-Associated "Wild-Type" Measles

Predicting and comparing long-term measles antibody profiles of different immunization policies

Immunogenicity of aerosol measles vaccine given as the primary measles immunization to nine-month-old Mexican children

Mild measles and secondary vaccine failure during a sustained outbreak in a highly vaccinated population



An outbreak of mumps in the metropolitan area of Walsall, UK.

Antibodies against mumps in The Netherlands as assessed by indirect ELISA and virus neutralization assay.

Comparison of the effectiveness of two mumps vaccines during an outbreak in Switzerland in 1999 and 2000: a case-cohort study.

Adverse effects following vaccinations and effectiveness of different live vaccines against mumps.

Mumps vaccine-associated acute orchitis with accompanying idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

Comparative evaluation of neurovirulence of domestic and foreign live mumps vaccine

Commentary: Ongoing debate over the safety of the different mumps vaccine strains impacts mumps disease control-International Journal of Epidemiology

Phylogenetic analysis of clinical mumps virus isolates from vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients with mumps during an outbreak, Switzerland 1998-2000.

Mumps epididymo-orchitis with prolonged detection of virus in semen and the development of anti-sperm antibodies.

Mumps epididymo-orchitis with prolonged detection of virus in semen and the development of anti-sperm antibodies

The rat-based neurovirulence safety test for the assessment of mumps virus neurovirulence in humans: an international collaborative study



Congenital rubella syndrome due to infection after maternal antibody conversion with vaccine.

A one year followup of chronic arthritis following rubella and hepatitis B vaccination based upon analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database.

Rubella vaccine and arthritic adverse reactions: an analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database from 1991 through 1998.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after live rubella vaccination.

Evidence Concerning Rubella Vaccines and Arthritis, Radiculoneuritis, and Thrombocytopenic Purpura-Chapter 7 of Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines

A model-based evaluation of the national immunization programme against rubella infection and congenital rubella syndrome in The Netherlands.

Induction of an organ-specific autoimmune disease, lymphocytic hypophysitis, in hamsters by recombinant rubella virus glycoprotein and prevention of disease by neonatal thymectomy

Post partum rubella vaccination and anti-D prevention

Complex regional pain syndrome type-I after rubella vaccine



Evaluation of a Quadrivalent Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella Vaccine in Healthy Children


Hepatits A

Recall of Hepatitis A Vaccine, Inactivated (VAQTA) (Packaged in single-dose prefilled syringes)

Effect of maternal antibody on immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine in infants.

Possible association of Guillain-Barre syndrome and hepatitis A vaccination

Viral Hepatitis A functional polymorphism in the IL-10 promoter influences the response after vaccination with HBsAg and hepatitis A


Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B vaccine nonresponse and celiac disease

Large artery vasculitis following recombinant hepatitis B vaccination: 2 cases.

A severe episode in a patient with recurrent disseminated acute encephalitis due to vaccination against hepatitis B. For or against vaccination?

Acute cerebellar ataxia after immunisation with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

Occlusion of the central retinal vein after vaccination against viral hepatitis B with recombinant vaccines. 4 cases

Unilateral papilloedema after hepatitis B vaccination in a migraine patient. A case report including forensic aspects.

A case report of fluctuant sensorineural hearing loss after hepatitis B vaccination.

The first episode of central nervous system demyelinization and hepatitis B virus vaccination.

Patients who develop inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) after immunization are clinically indistinguishable from other patients with IP.

The development of rheumatoid arthritis after recombinant hepatitis B vaccination.

Arthritis after hepatitis B vaccination. Report of three cases.

Encephalitis after hepatitis B vaccination: recurrent disseminated encephalitis or MS?

Severe pancytopenia triggered by recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura after recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: retrospective study of seven cases.

A hepatitis B virus variant found in the sera of immunised children induces a conformational change in the HBsAg "a" determinant.

Hepatitis B vaccine -- do we need boosters?

Hepatitis B vaccination and adult associated gastrointestinal reactions: a follow-up analysis.

Antigen-specific T cell response in infants after recombinant hepatitis B virus vaccination at birth: evaluation of T helper lymphocyte diversity.

Is Yeast Allergy an Absolute Contraindication to Hepatitis B Vaccination?

The antibody response to HBs antigen is regulated by coordinated Th1 and Th2 cytokine production in healthy neonates

A randomized, prospective field trial of a conjugate vaccine in the protection of infants and young children against invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease

Childhood bullous pemphigoid following hepatitis B immunization.

Cytokine polymorphisms play a role in susceptibility to ultraviolet B-induced modulation of immune responses after hepatitis B vaccination.

Humoral response to recombinant hepatitis B virus vaccine at birth: role of HLA and beyond.

A review of hepatitis B vaccination.

Hepatitis B vaccination safety.

Hepatitis B immunisation induces higher antibody and memory Th2 responses in new-borns than in adults

Kawasaki disease in an infant following immunisation with hepatitis B vaccine.

The immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in humans: inheritance patterns in families.

Long term antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination beginning at birth and to subsequent booster vaccination.

Immune responses to hepatitis B surface antigen following epidermal powder immunization.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine-induced escape mutants of HBV S gene among children from Qidong area, China.

Association of humans leucocitary antigens with humoral nonresponsive to hepatitis B vaccine in chronic hemodialysis patients.

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices among providers of Hepatitis B vaccine in young children

A preliminary experiment of absorption of antinuclear antibodies by the hepatitis B vaccine components, in a case of neurolupus

Lichen planus induced by hepatitis B vaccination: a new case and review of the literature

Two case reports of cutaneous adverse reactions following hepatitis B vaccine: lichen planus and granuloma annulare

Two case reports of cutaneous adverse reactions following hepatitis B vaccine: lichen planus and granuloma annulare

Effectiveness of Hepatitis B vaccination in children of chronic hepatitis B mothers

Vaccination in humans generates broad T cell cytokine responses-Hep B

Vaccines administered simultaneously: directions for new combination vaccines based on an historical review of the literature-Hep B

CD26/DPPIV and response to hepatitis B vaccination-The prevention of hepatitis B is important, since it is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality around the world. Unfortunately, hepatitis B vaccine does not always induce protective immunity.

Blood levels of TT virus following immune stimulation with influenza or hepatitis B vaccine

Waning immunity to plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine and the need for boosters 15 years after neonatal vaccination

Does Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Continue after 15 Years?

Antibody levels and protection after hepatitis B vaccination: results of a 15-year follow-up

Immunogenicity in humans of an edible vaccine for hepatitis B

Autoimmune hazards of hepatitis B vaccine.

Non-responsiveness to hepatitis B surface antigen vaccines is not caused by defective antigen presentation or a lack of B7 co-stimulation

Autoimmune hazards of hepatitis B vaccine.

Non-responsiveness to hepatitis B surface antigen vaccines is not caused by defective antigen presentation or a lack of B7 co-stimulation

Fatal Syncope-Related Fall After Immunization-Hep B

Multiple sclerosis and hepatitis B vaccination: Adding the credibility of molecular biology to an unusual level of clinical and epidemiological evidence

Multiple sclerosis and hepatitis B vaccination: could minute contamination of the vaccine by partial hepatitis B virus polymerase play a role through molecular mimicry?

Anti-phospholipid antibodies following vaccination with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine

Natural History and Clinical Consequences of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

An evaluation of school-level factors used in a successful school-based hepatitis B immunization initiative


Gianotti-Crosti syndrome in an infant following immunization


Combined Hepatitis A & B

Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia following vaccination with a combined vaccine against hepatitis A and B.

A two-dose schedule for combined hepatitis A and B vaccination in children aged 6-15 years

Vaccination-induced cutaneous pseudolymphoma

Hepatitis E

Protective Efficacy of Hepatitis E Virus DNA Vaccine Administered by Gene Gun in the Cynomolgus Macaque Model of Infection


Disseminated varicella infection due to the vaccine strain of varicella-zoster virus, in a patient with a novel deficiency in natural killer T cells.

Herpes zoster virus sclerokeratitis and anterior uveitis in a child following varicella vaccination.

Outbreak of varicella at a day-care center despite vaccination. NEJM Article

Urticaria following varicella vaccine associated with gelatin allergy.

Herpes zoster in a normal child after varicella vaccination.

Chickenpox attributable to a vaccine virus contracted from a vaccinee with zoster.

Transmission of varicella to a gravida via close contacts immunized with varicella-zoster vaccine. A case report.

Transmission of varicella-vaccine virus from a healthy 12-month-old child to his pregnant mother.

Outbreak of Varicella at a Day-Care Center despite Vaccination-NEJM

A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Association of Varicella Vaccine Failure With Asthma, Steroid Use, Age at Vaccination, and Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination

Cost–benefit analysis of universal varicella vaccination in the U.S. taking into account the closely related herpes–zoster epidemiology

Effectiveness over time of varicella vaccine.

Safety of cold-adapted live attenuated influenza vaccine in a large cohort of children and adolescents.

Fixed Drug Eruption Due to Influenza Vaccine.

Chickenpox Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated School Population

Detection and genotyping of varicella-zoster virus by TaqMan allelic discrimination real-time PCR

Effectiveness of live varicella vaccine

The varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 63 latency-associated protein is critical for establishment of latency

Declining incidence of chickenpox in the absence of universal childhood immunisation

Varicella Zoster Virus Meningitis in a Previously Immunized Child

Genetic Profile of an Oka Varicella Vaccine Virus Variant Isolated from an Infant with Zoster

Changes Coming For Use of the Varicella Vaccine-Possible changes are adding a second dose, combining it with another vaccine

Safety and immunogenicity of gelatin-free varicella vaccine in epidemiological and serological studies in Japan

The impact of varicella vaccination in the United States

Supplement Approval - Varicella Virus Vaccine Live (Varivax)

Vaccine effectiveness and severity of varicella among previously vaccinated children during outbreaks in day-care centers with low vaccination coverage.

Vaccine Effectiveness and Severity of Varicella Among Previously Vaccinated Children During Outbreaks in Day-Care Centers With Low Vaccination Coverage


Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

Recommendations for the Use of Vaccines Manufactured with Bovine-Derived Materials

Detection and characterization of pestivirus contaminations in human live viral vaccines.

Guidance for Industry-The Sourcing and Processing of Gelatin to Reduce the Potential Risk Posed by Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in FDA-Regulated Products for Human Use

Susceptibility of common fibroblast cell lines to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents.

Questions and Answers on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy



Side effects of influenza vaccines kill seven in two years

Possible link between flu jab and Guillain-Barré syndrome under investigation

Oculo-respiratory Syndrome: A New Influenza VaccineAssociated Adverse Event?

Influenza vaccination and Guillain Barre syndrome small star, filled.

Aggregate content influences the Th1/Th2 immune response to influenza vaccine: Evidence from a mouse model.

Lymphocyte distribution in the tonsils prior to and after influenza vaccination.

Flu Vaccine 2004-2005 Strain Selection Slated For Feb. 18-19 Committee Discussion

Bell palsy following intranasal vaccination

Influenza vaccination in children with asthma: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

Safety and efficacy of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in young children: a summary for the new era of routine vaccination.

Intranasal influenza vaccine in a working population.

Failure of inactivated influenza A vaccine to protect healthy children aged 6-24 months

Progression of renal disease in Henoch-Schonlein purpura after influenza vaccination

Live cold-adapted influenza A vaccine produced in Vero cell line

Modeling pandemic preparedness scenarios: health economic implications of enhanced pandemic vaccine supply

Poor immune responses to influenza vaccination in infants

Methodological quality of studies and patient age as major sources of variation in efficacy estimates of influenza vaccination in healthy adults: a meta-analysis

Effectiveness of influenza vaccine during pregnancy in preventing hospitalizations and outpatient visits for respiratory illness in pregnant women and their infants

A potential signal of Bell's palsy after parenteral inactivated influenza vaccines: reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)--United States, 1991-2001

Pericarditis. Series of 84 consecutive cases

Severe vasculitic neuropathy following influenza vaccination

Strong local and systemic protective immunity induced in the ferret model by an intranasal virosome-formulated influenza subunit vaccine

Human genetics and responses to influenza vaccination: clinical implications

Improved immune responses to influenza vaccination in the elderly using an immunostimulant patch

Estimating medical practice expenses from administering adult influenza vaccinations

Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Induces Cross-Reactive Antibody Responses in Children Against an A/Fujian/411/2002-Like H3N2 Antigenic Variant Strain

Oculorespiratory Syndrome After Influenza Immunization in Children

Influenza vaccines: recent advances in production technologies

Vaccination versus treatment of influenza in working adults: a cost-effectiveness analysis

Adverse Events After Inactivated Influenza Vaccination Among Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: Analysis of Reports From the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, 1990–2003

Generation of influenza vaccine viruses on Vero cells by reverse genetics: an H5N1 candidate vaccine strain produced under a quality system

Values for preventing influenza-related morbidity and vaccine adverse events in children

Outbreak of influenza A (H3N2) in a highly-vaccinated religious community: a retrospective cohort study.

Requiring influenza vaccination for health care workers: seven truths we must accept

Household-based costs and benefits of vaccinating healthy children in daycare against influenza virus: results from a pilot study

Economic Evaluation of Oseltamivir Phosphate for Postexposure Prophylaxis of Influenza in Long-Term Care Facilities

Use of the inactivated intranasal influenza vaccine and the risk of Bell's palsy in Switzerland

Clinical reactions and serologic responses in healthy children aged six to 35 months after two-dose regimens of inactivated A/New Jersey/76 influenza virus vaccines.

Impact of Influenza Vaccination on Seasonal Mortality in the US Elderly Population

Points and Q & A's-Impact of Influenza Vaccination on Seasonal Mortality in the US Elderly Population

Repeated influenza vaccination of healthy children and adults: borrow now, pay later?

Oculo-respiratory syndrome: a new influenza vaccine-associated adverse event?

Stability of influenza sub-unit vaccine Does a couple of days outside the refrigerator matter?

Natural or vaccine-induced antibody as a predictor of immunity in the face of natural challenge with influenza viruses

Are US flu death figures more PR than science?

Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults-There is not enough evidence to recommend universal vaccination against influenza in healthy adults

Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children-This review found nasal spray vaccines are better than injected vaccines at preventing influenza in children; neither were particularly good at preventing influenza-like illness

Vaccinating healthcare workers against influenza to protect the vulnerable—Is it a good use of healthcare resources? A systematic review of the evidence and an economic evaluation

Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine safety in children: Assessing the contribution of telephone encounters

Efficacy of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine in alleviating the febrile illness of culture-confirmed influenza in children in the 2000–2001 influenza season

Evidence of bias in estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness in seniors




Assessment of injection site reactions to an acellular pertussis-based combination vaccine, including novel use of skin tests with vaccine antigens.

Local reactions and IgE antibodies to pertussis toxin after acellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunization.

Approaches to the control of acellular pertussis vaccines.

Evaluation of transmission electron microscopy for examination of components of acellular pertussis and combination vaccines.

Characteristics and potency of an acellular pertussis vaccine composed of pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin.

Are serological responses to acellular pertussis antigens sufficient criteria to ensure that new combination vaccines are effective for prevention of disease?

Immunogenicity of a combined diphtheria–tetanus–acellular pertussis vaccine in adults

Safety of DTaP-based combined immunization in very-low-birth-weight premature infants: frequent but mostly benign cardiorespiratory events

Effects of lowering the aluminium content of a dTpa vaccine on its immunogenicity and reactogenicity when given as a booster to adolescents



Aluminum allergy caused by DTP vaccine

Evaluation of the toxic action of prophylactic and therapeutic preparations on cell cultures of different types and origin. II. The cytotoxic action of adsorbed DPT vaccine and its components on cells of the continuous L132 line

An evaluation of the allergizing properties of merthiolate as a component of adsorbed DTP vaccine

Hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1996-1998.

Clinical implications of endotoxin concentrations in vaccines.

Adverse reactions after injection of adsorbed diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine are not due only to pertussis organisms or pertussis components in the vaccine.

Full Study-A case of Kawasaki disease with reaction at a DPT vaccination scar site

Urinary Tract Diseases Revealed after DTP Vaccination in Infants and Young Children: Cytokine Irregularities and Down-regulation of Cytochrome P-450 Enzymes Induced by the Vaccine May Uncover Latent Diseases in Genetically Predisposed Subjects

Reduced Immunogenicity of Diptheria and Tetanus Toxoids when combined with Pertussis Toxoid.

Effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis or tetanus vaccination on allergies and allergy-related respiratory symptoms among children and adolescents in the United States



Adverse events reported after fourth and fifth dose of DT Vaccine

Immunogenicity of a combined diphtheria–tetanus–acellular pertussis vaccine in adults

Gene expression after vaccination of mice with formulations of diphtheria toxoid or tetanus toxoid and different adjuvants: identification of shared and vaccine-specific genes in spleen lymphocytes.

Rational approaches to reduce adverse reactions in man to vaccines containing tetanus and diphtheria toxoids.

Persistent itching nodules after the fourth dose of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid vaccines without evidence of delayed hypersensitivity to aluminium

Spontaneously reported adverse reactions after diphtheria-tetanus revaccination at 4-6 years of age-a comparison of two vaccines with different amounts of diphtheria toxoid



Physicochemical and immunochemical techniques predict the quality of diphtheria toxoid vaccines

Diptheria Toxin Sensitivity

Short-term booster effect of diphtheria toxoid in initially long-term protected individuals



Acute Myocarditis Associated with Tetanus Vaccination

Protection against tetanus toxin using a plant-based vaccine.

Specific peptides of casein pancreatic digestion enhance the production of tetanus toxin



Differences in antibody response to whole-cell pertussis vaccines.

Efficacies of whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines against Bordetella parapertussis in a mouse model

Polymorphism of Bordetella pertussis Isolates Circulating for the Last 10 Years in France, Where a Single Effective Whole-Cell Vaccine Has Been Used for More than 30 Years

Antigenic variants in Bordetella pertussis strains isolated from vaccinated and unvaccinated children

Report of a US public health service workshop on hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode (HHE) after pertussis immunization.

Annual report of Bordetella for year 2001

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in cynomolgus monkeys.

Adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to Vaccination: A Cause for Its Reemergence?

Serious neurological conditions following pertussis immunization: an analysis of endotoxin levels, the vaccine adverse events reporting system (VAERS) database and literature review.

Role of the polymorphic region 1 of the Bordetella pertussis protein pertactin in immunity.

Bordetella pertussis protein pertactin induces type-specific antibodies: one possible explanation for the emergence of antigenic variants?

Rapid Identification of Bordetella pertussis Pertactin Gene Variants Using LightCycler Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Combined with Melting Curve Analysis and Gel Electrophoresis.

Polymorphism in Bordetella pertussis pertactin and pertussis toxin virulence factors in the United States, 1935-1999.

Adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to vaccination: a cause for its reemergence?

Temporal nucleotide changes in pertactin and pertussis toxin genes in Bordetella pertussis strains isolated from clinical cases in Poland.

Antigenic variants in Bordetella pertussis strains isolated from vaccinated and unvaccinated children.

Transfer of allergic airway responses with serum and lymphocytes from rats sensitized to dust mite.

Pertussis vaccination strategies for neonates––an exploratory cost-effectiveness analysis

Toxicity and potency evaluation of pertussis vaccines

Pertussis Infection in Fully Vaccinated Children in Day-Care Centers, Israel

Efficacies of whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines against Bordetella parapertussis in a mouse model

Sequence variation and conservation in virulence-related genes of Bordetella pertussis isolates from the UK

Epidemiology and characterization of Bordetella parapertussis strains isolated between 1995 and 2002 in and around Warsaw, Poland

Sequence variation in pertussis S1 subunit toxin and pertussis genes in Bordetella pertussis strains used for the whole-cell pertussis vaccine produced in Poland since 1960; Efficiency of the DTwP vaccine-induced immunity against currently circulating B. pertussis isolates

Epitope structure of the Bordetella pertussis protein P.69 pertactin, a major vaccine component and protective antigen.

Prevalence of antibody to Bordetella pertussis antigens in serum specimens obtained from 1793 adolescents and adults

Societal costs and morbidity of pertussis in adolescents and adults

Acellular pertussis vaccines and complement killing of Bordetella pertussis

Infant Pertussis: Who Was the Source?

Pertussis Boosters For Adolescents Look Promising Replacement of Td booster may be in sight.

Societal costs and morbidity of pertussis in adolescents and adults

Vaccination with pertussis toxin alters the antibody response to simultaneous respiratory syncytial virus challenge

Pertussis resurgence in Canada largely caused by a cohort effect

Differences of circulating Bordetella pertussis population in Argentina from the strain used in vaccine production


Haemophilus Influenzae B

Spectrum of disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b occurring in vaccinated children.

A high degree of natural immunologic priming to the capsular polysaccharide may not prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis.

The effects of Haemophilus influenzae vaccination on anaphylactic mediator release and isoprenaline-induced inhibition of mediator release.

Hemophilus influenzae meningitis despite vaccination

Disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in the immediate period after homologous immunization: immunologic investigation.

Association between type 1 diabetes and Hib vaccine.

Immunologic memory in Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine failure.

Limited efficacy of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Alaska Native infants. The Alaska H. influenzae Vaccine Study Group

Impaired antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide and low IgG2 and IgG4 concentrations in Apache children

Safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine containing aluminum phosphate adjuvant administered at 2, 3 and 4 months of age.

Post-marketing evaluation of the short term safety of COMVAX®

Vaccinations may induce diabetes-related autoantibodies in one-year-old children.

Blue Cellulitis: A Rare Entity In The Era Of HIB Conjugate Vaccine.

Outbreak of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease among fully vaccinated children in a day-care center

Endotoxin Content in Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine

Natural immunity to Haemophilus influenzae type B in children of Ankara, Turkey

Cellulitis resulting from infection by Haemophilus influenzae type b: report of two cases

Meningitis without a petechial rash in children in the Hib vaccine era

Vaccination failure: case report of Haemophilus influenzae b meningitis in a 14-month-old child

Comparison of vaccination of mice and rats with Haemophilus influenzae and Bordetella pertussis as models of atopy

Effects of Haemophilus influenzae vaccination on the (para-)sympathic-cyclic nucleotide-histamine axis in rats

Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine induced by Haemophilus influenzae vaccination

Presence of Multiple Copies of the Capsulation b Locus in Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Strains Isolated from Children with Hib Conjugate Vaccine Failure



Connection between the group factors of the blood systems ABO, MNSs, and rhesus and peculiarities of the vaccination process in children immunized against smallpox

Anticipating smallpox and monkeypox outbreaks. Complications of the smallpox vaccine

Product Approval Information-Wyeth Pharmaceuticals-Smallpox Vaccine, Dried, Calf Lymph Type, Dryvax

ACAM2000 clonal Vero cell culture vaccinia virus (New York City Board of Health strain) - a second-generation smallpox vaccine for biological defense

Myopericarditis following smallpox vaccination

Allergists Report Risks Associated with Smallpox Vaccine

Severe headaches following smallpox vaccination

Smallpox Vaccine Does Not Protect Macaques with AIDS from a Lethal Monkeypox Virus Challenge

The Future of Smallpox Vaccination: is MVA the key?

Safety profile of smallpox vaccine: insights from the laboratory worker smallpox vaccination program.

Validation of a screening instrument to identify persons for exclusion from smallpox vaccination

Differential Regulation of Granzyme and Perforin in Effector and Memory T Cells following Smallpox Immunization




Pityriasis rosea-like eruption due to pneumococcal vaccine in a child with nephrotic syndrome.

Changes in treatment strategies for acute otitis media after full implementation of the pneumococcal seven valent conjugate vaccine.

Influence of insurance status and vaccine cost on physicians' administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

Antigen processing of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine carrier protein CRM(197) differs depending on the serotype of the attached polysaccharide.

Serological criteria for evaluation and licensure of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulations for use in infants.

Significant variation in serotype-specific immunogenicity of the seven-valent Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine occurs despite vigorous T cell help induced by the carrier protein.

Physician perspectives regarding pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

Pneumococcal endocarditis in children

Mucosal immune responses to capsular pneumococcal polysaccharides in immunized preschool children and controls with similar nasal pneumococcal colonization rates

Pneumococcal vaccines: do they prevent infection and how?

The effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines in adults: a systematic review of observational studies and comparison with results from randomised controlled trials

Prevnar-The replacement effect-Concern over a vaccine that causes unintended increase in related infections

Potential conflicts of interest in vaccine economics research: a commentary with a case study of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination

Reduction of antibody response to an 11-valent pneumococcal vaccine coadministered with a vaccine containing acellular pertussis components

Postlicensure Safety Surveillance for 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine-JAMA-Prevnar

Azithromycin modulates murine immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and inhibits nasal clearance of bacteria-Prevnar

Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage after combined pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccination in children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media-Prevnar

Postlicensure safety surveillance for 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PubMed-Prevnar

Global distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes isolated from paediatric patients during 1999-2000 and the in vitro efficacy of telithromycin and comparators-Prevnar

Association of clinical signs and symptoms with pneumococcal acute otitis media by serotype--implications for vaccine effect

Immunogenicity and Safety of the Eleven Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide-Protein D Conjugate Vaccine in Infants

Molecular Epidemiology of Pneumococcal Colonization in Response to Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Children with Recurrent Acute Otitis Media

Effect of Pneumococcal Vaccination on Quality of Life in Children With Recurrent Acute Otitis Media: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

Pneumococcal protein homologs and fragments for vaccines

Advances in pneumococcal vaccines: advantages for infants and children

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination does not induce a persisting mucosal IgA response in children with recurrent acute otitis media

Severe febrile systemic reaction to pneumococcal vaccine

Effect of the Seven-Valent Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine on Carriage and Drug Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Healthy Children Attending Day-Care Centers in Lisbon

Direct and Indirect Effects of Routine Vaccination of Children with 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease --- United States, 1998--2003


Japanese B Encephalitis

Gianotti-Crosti syndrome following Japanese encephalitis vaccination.

Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome and Allergic Background


Surveillance for poliovirus vaccine adverse events, 1991 to 1998: impact of a sequential vaccination schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccine followed by oral poliovirus vaccine.

Genetic recombination in wild-type poliovirus.

Isolation of vaccine-derived type 1 polioviruses displaying similar properties to virulent wild strain Mahoney from sewage in Japan.

Strengths and weaknesses of current polio vaccines--a view from industry.

Polio vaccine may spawn disease Study highlights need for polio eradication exit plan. 17 November 2003

Safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine produced in vero-cells

Rapid RT-PCR amplification of full-length poliovirus genomes allows rapid discrimination between wild-type and recombinant vaccine-derived polioviruses.

Isolation and characterization of circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus from sewage and stream waters in hispaniola.

Characterization of a highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus type 3 isolated from sewage in Estonia

Site analysis of recombinant and mutant poliovirus isolates of Sabin origin from patients and from vaccinees

Shedding of sabin poliovirus Type 3 containing the nucleotide 472 uracil-to-cytosine point mutation after administration of oral poliovirus vaccine

Polio vaccine may spawn disease-Study highlights need for polio eradication exit plan

Oral polio vaccination and low case fatality at the paediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

Intussusception and oral poliovirus vaccination: is there an association?

Vaccine policy changes and epidemiology of poliomyelitis in the United States

Molecular identification of enteroviruses responsible for an outbreak of aseptic meningitis; implications in clinical practice and epidemiology-Polio

Spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus from a paralytic case in an immunodeficient child: an insight into the natural evolution of oral polio vaccine

Ensuring preparedness for potential poliomyelitis outbreaks: Recommendations for the US poliovirus vaccine stockpile from the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

Long-term excretion of vaccine-derived poliovirus by a healthy child

Probiotic bacteria stimulate virus-specific neutralizing antibodies following a booster polio vaccination

Investment Case for the Polio Stockpile

Evidence for a causal association between oral polio vaccine and transverse myelitis: A case history and review of the Literature


Vitamin K




High diversity of group A Streptococcal emm types in an Indian community: the need to tailor multivalent vaccines



Anthrax vaccination and joint related adverse reactions in light of biological warfare scenarios.

Oral pemphigus vulgaris after anthrax vaccine administration: Association or coincidence?

Authorization of Emergency Use of Anthrax Vaccine


Rotavirus vaccine for preventing diarrhoea.

Safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of a live, quadrivalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine in healthy infants.

An Analysis of Rotavirus Vaccine Reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System: More Than Intussusception Alone?

Intussusception and rotavirus vaccines: what is the background risk?

GSK's Rotavirus Vaccine: No Link to Intussusception-Different than vaccine withdrawn in 1999

Rotavirus vaccines and intussusception risk

More on RotaShield and Intussusception: The Role of Age at the Time of Vaccination


BCG vaccine and post-BCG complications among infants in Gaza Strip, 1999

Epileptic Encephalopathies

BCG vaccine-associated suppurative lymphadenitis

Skin complications of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunization

The efficacy of live tuberculosis vaccines after presensitization with Mycobacterium avium

Interleukin-1beta mediates the memory impairment associated with a delayed type hypersensitivity response to bacillus Calmette-Guerin in the rat hippocampus




Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura following a meningococcal vaccine

Meningococcal Vaccines

Meningitis vaccination may increase risk in under-2s

FDA and CDC Issue Alert on Menactra Meningococcal Vaccine and Guillain Barre Syndrome



Challenges to Conducting HIV Preventative Vaccine Trials With Adolescents


Yellow Fever

Risk of fatal adverse events associated with 17DD yellow fever vaccine

Yellow fever vaccination: How much is enough?



Unique Characteristics of the Intestinal Immune System as an Inductive Site after Antigen Reencounter

Acute inflammation and negative mood: mediation by cytokine activation


Contraceptive/STD vaccines

Predicting the Potential Individual- and Population-Level Effects of Imperfect Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Vaccines

Contraceptive vaccines


Vaccine Safety

VACCINE SAFETY TESTINGS: WHAT ARE THEY, AND WHY DO THEM? (As Related to the Current Epidemics of Childhood Autism, Learning Disabilities, and Related Medical-Legal Issues) by Harold E Buttram, MD, FAAEM

Lessons from preventive infectious disease vaccines

Vaccine Counseling Finally Rewarded

TLR4 contributes to disease-inducing mechanisms resulting in central nervous system autoimmune disease

Regulation of vaccines: strengthening the science base

Field evaluation of vaccine safety

Use of vaccine surveillance data in the evaluation of safety of vaccines

Methodological issues arising from systematic reviews of the evidence of safety of vaccines

Control without separate controls: evaluation of vaccine safety using case-only methods

A global perspective on vaccine safety

Technologies that make administration of vaccines safer

Evaluation of vaccine safety after the events of 11 September 2001: role of cohort and case-control studies.

Material deprivation, hospitalisation and adverse events temporally associated with immunisation

Divergent female–male mortality ratios associated with different routine vaccinations among female–male twin pairs

Population-based study of lymphoma in Germany: rationale, study design and first results.

Vaccination and allergy

An evaluation of serious neurological disorders following immunization: a comparison of whole-cell pertussis and acellular pertussis vaccines

Failure to clear persistent vaccine-derived neurovirulent poliovirus infection in an immunodeficient man.

Quality Assessments of HMO Diagnosis Databases Used to Monitor Childhood Vaccine Safety

Gastrointestinal adverse reactions following anthrax vaccination: an analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database

Childhood vaccine risk/benefit communication among public health clinics: a time-motion study

Short- and long-term effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of children on penicillin resistance.

Enhancing Public Confidence in Vaccines Through Independent Oversight of Postlicensure Vaccine Safety

Getting the Science Right and Doing the Right Science in Vaccine Safety

Uncertain Benefit: The Public Policy of Approving Smallpox Vaccine Research

Vaccine Risk Perception Among Reporters of Autism After Vaccination: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System 1990–2001

Vaccination and Allergic Disease: A Birth Cohort Study

Are parental vaccine safety concerns associated with receipt of measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids with acellular pertussis, or hepatitis B vaccines by children?

No change seen in hospitalizations-Combo Vaccine Plan Results in More Fevers-Are fewer vaccines worth the side effects?

Evaluating the Safety of New Vaccines: Summary of a Workshop

Guidance for Industry-Toxicity Grading Scale for Healthy Adult and Adolescent Volunteers Enrolled in Preventive Vaccine Clinical Trials

Immunogenicity and Safety of a Combination Pneumococcal-Meningococcal Vaccine in Infants

Models of Phase 1 vaccine trials: optimization of trial design to minimize risks of multiple serious adverse events.

Vaccination-induced cutaneous pseudolymphoma

Assessment of immunological competence and SV40 specific recall immunity in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Sample sizes and negative studies in clinical vaccine research

Safety and immunogenicity of concomitant versus nonconcomitant administration of hepatitis B, tetanus-diphtheria, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in healthy eleven- to twelve-year-olds

Is the abnormal toxicity test still relevant for the safety of vaccines, sera and immunoglobulins?

Unexplained cases of sudden infant death shortly after hexavalent vaccination


Vaccine Effectiveness

Case-control studies of the effectiveness of vaccines: validity and assessment of potential bias

The success of immunization-shovelling its own grave?

The cochrane vaccines field

Variation in vaccine response in normal populations.

Outbreak of varicella among vaccinated children--Michigan, 2003

Influence of clinical case definitions with differing levels of sensitivity and specificity on estimates of the relative and absolute health benefits of influenza vaccination among healthy working adults and implications for economic analyses

Role of Herd Immunity in Determining the Effect of Vaccines against Sexually Transmitted Disease

DNA shuffling and screening strategies for improving vaccine efficacy

Can successful vaccines teach us how to induce efficient protective immune responses?

Use of Marek's disease vaccines: could they be driving the virus to increasing virulence?

The association between life events, social support, and antibody status following thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations in healthy young adults

Estimating vaccine efficacy using auxiliary outcome data and a small validation sample

Stress as an endogenous adjuvant: augmentation of the immunization phase of cell-mediated immunity


General Information

Should routine childhood immunizations be compulsory?

Compliance with national immunization guidelines for children younger than 2 years, 1996-1999

Global perspectives on vaccine financing

When can a clinical trial be called `randomized'?

Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura

Vaccination Debate

New Possible Link to SIDS Found

Assessing the impact of wastage on pediatric vaccine immunization formulary costs using a vaccine selection algorithm

Identification of novel tick salivary gland proteins for vaccine development

Vaccination and Autoimmunity—‘vaccinosis’: A Dangerous Liaison?

Exploiting receptor biology for oral vaccination with biodegradable particulates

Antibody Production Deficiency With Normal IgG Levels in Bronchiectasis of Unknown Etiology

A serine protease inhibitor (serpin) from Haemaphysalis longicornis as an anti-tick vaccine

Prevention of virus persistence and protection against immunopathology after Borna disease virus infection of the brain by a novel Orf virus recombinant

Vaccines for otitis media: proposals for overcoming obstacles to progress

Vaccines in the public eye

New approaches to development of mucosal vaccine against enteric bacterial pathogens; preventing campylobacteriosis.

The process development challenge for a new vaccine

DNA immunization against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infant rhesus monkeys

Non-invasive vaccine delivery in transfersomes, niosomes and liposomes: a comparative study

Health economic research on vaccinations and immunisation practices--an introductory primer

On the need for, and the delivery of, cross-protective vaccines

Vaccines: past, present and future.

Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia and marginal zone B-cell lymphoma following vaccination





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