Vaccine Ingredients

Definitions and descriptions of what's in vaccines

Adjuvants   Aluminum   Cell Lines   Thimerosal

2-Phenoxyethanol    Gelatin    Formaldehyde

Preservatives    General Information





Overview of Adjuvants

Distinctive Patterns of Autoimmune Response Induced by Different Types of Mineral Oil.

Comparison of different adjuvants of protein and DNA vaccination for the prophylaxis of IgE antibody formation.

Suramin has adjuvant properties and promotes expansion of antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 cells in vivo.

Induction of lupus autoantibodies by adjuvants.

Adjuvants for human vaccines--current status, problems and future prospects.

Immunological foundations to the quest for new vaccine adjuvants.

Cell death induced by vaccine adjuvants containing surfactants

Application of PCR for detection of mycoplasma DNA and pestivirus RNA in human live viral vaccines

Autoimmunity induced by adjuvant hydrocarbon oil components of vaccine

Pertussis adjuvant prolongs intestinal hypersensitivity

Vaccine adjuvants: Current state and future trends

Resiquimod: a new immune response modifier with potential as a vaccine adjuvant for Th1 immune responses-Herpes Vaccine

Oral administration of second-generation immunomodulatory oligonucleotides induces mucosal Th1 immune responses and adjuvant activity

Targeting the innate immune response with improved vaccine adjuvants.

A CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide as an efficient adjuvant counterbalancing the Th1/Th2 immune response in diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis vaccine

Polysorbate 80 in medical products and nonimmunologic anaphylactoid reactions

Co-stimulatory agonists as immunological adjuvants



Aluminum as an adjuvant in vaccines and post-vaccine reactions

In vivo absorption of aluminium-containing vaccine adjuvants using 26Al

Macrophagic myofasciitis: a summary of Dr. Gherardi's presentations.

Aluminum phagocytosis in quadriceps muscle following vaccination in children: relationship to macrophagic myofasciitis.

Central nervous system disease in patients with macrophagic myofasciitis.

Lessons from macrophagic myofasciitis: towards definition of a vaccine adjuvant-related syndrome

Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle.

Unexpectedly high incidence of persistent itching nodules and delayed hypersensitivity to aluminium in children after the use of adsorbed vaccines from a single manufacturer.

Macrophagic myofasciitis

Mechanism of adsorption of hepatitis B surface antigen by aluminum hydroxide adjuvant

Vaccination granulomas and aluminium allergy: course and prognostic factors.

Aluminium-adjuvanted vaccines transiently increase aluminium levels in murine brain tissue.

Aluminium and injection site reactions.

Aluminium in vaccines raises risk of skin disease

Macrophagic Myofasciitis in Childhood: A Controversial Entity

Aluminum encephalopathy syndrome


Cell Lines

"Designer" Cells as Substrates for the Manufacture of Viral Vaccines

Bridging the gap: human diploid cell strains and the origin of AIDS.

Interlab Cell Line Collection



HEK 293


Briefing Information-Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee Meeting May 16, 2001

Presence of cytokines in biological preparations.

Letter to Sponsors Using Vero Cells as a Cell Substrate for Investigational Vaccines

Workshop on Non-Clinical Safety Evaluation of Preventive Vaccines: Recent Advances and Regulatory Considerations

Ethical analyses of vaccines grown in human cell strains derived from abortion: arguments and Internet search

Vaccine Cell Substrates: Vaccine Cell Substrates: Bovine and Porcine Virus Bovine and Porcine Virus Considerations



A probable role for vaccines containing thimerosal in thimerosal hypersensitivity.

Summary of the Joint Statement on Thimerosal in Vaccines-MMWR

Inhibitory Signal Override Increases Susceptibility to Mercury-Induced Autoimmunity

An assessment of the impact of thimerosal on childhood neurodevelopmental disorders.

Neurodevelopmental disorders after thimerosal-containing vaccines: a brief communication.

Mercury in Plasma-Derived Products

Wells' syndrome following thiomersal-containing vaccinations.

Effect of thimerosal, a preservative in vaccines, on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of rat cerebellar neurons.

Thimerosal and Routine Pediatric Vaccines

Thimerosal and Expanded List of Vaccines

Dose–response study of thimerosal-induced murine systemic autoimmunity

Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal

The evidence for the safety of thiomersal in newborn and infant vaccines

Neurotoxic effects of postnatal thimerosal are mouse strain dependent.

Mercury exposure in children: a review

Thimerosal in Vaccines

Immunosuppressive and autoimmune effects of thimerosal in mice

Thimerosal neurotoxicity is associated with glutathione depletion: protection with glutathione precursors

Thiomersal in vaccines: balancing the risk of adverse effects with the risk of vaccine-preventable disease.

Flow-cytometric analysis on cytotoxic effect of thimerosal, a preservative in vaccines, on lymphocytes dissociated from rat thymic glands

Vaccination researchers urge caution-New report suggests that mercury-laced preservative may be more toxic than once thought

A generalized reaction to thimerosal from an influenza vaccine

A two-phased population epidemiological study of the safety of thimerosal-containing vaccines: a follow-up analysis.

Thimerosal – Is it really irrelevant?



Removal of gelatin from live vaccines and DTaP-an ultimate solution for vaccine-related gelatin allergy.

Expression and characterization of a low molecular weight recombinant human gelatin: development of a substitute for animal-derived gelatin with superior features



Formaldehyde Accumulation Seen From Ingested Aspartame

Isolation of a 2:1 hydrochlorothiazide-formaldehyde adduct impurity in hydrochlorothiazide drug substance by preparative chromatography and characterization by electrospray ionization LC-MS.

Genetic Events Involved in Formaldehyde-Induced Carcinogenesis

Identification and quantification of in vitro adduct formation between protein reactive xenobiotics and a lysine-containing model peptide

Cytotoxic effects of methanol, formaldehyde, and formate on dissociated rat thymocytes: a possibility of aspartame toxicity




Preservatives in Vaccines

Preservatives Used in U.S. Licensed Vaccines


General Information

Adventitious Agents and Vaccines

Vaccine Excipient & Media Summary

Safety Data-Vaccine Excipient & Media Summary with Material Data Safety Sheet (MSDS) information and Vaccine Inserts.

Additives in Vaccines

Lack of Evidence of Endogenous Avian Leukosis Virus and Endogenous Avian Retrovirus Transmission to Measles Mumps Rubella Vaccine Recipients.

Avoiding Allergic Reactions to Childhood Vaccines-Examples of vaccines that contain egg protein, thimerosal, antibiotics, and gelatin.

IgE reactivity to vaccine components in dogs that developed immediate-type allergic reactions after vaccination

Use of microparticles combined with submicron oil-in-water emulsions



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